History of pipe production
Historical information and archaeological data suggest that the appearance of metal pipes is rooted in the depths of centuries. Pipe case originated in antiquity, the Middle East and Asia, whose peoples are the first on the path of socio-cultural development, were able to mine ore and smelt metals. Through radiocarbon analysis, as well as physical and chemical methods of research of the ancient monuments of material, which is based on modern archaeological and historical science, it was found that the use of metals dates back to the beginning is not V-IV millennium BC, as previously thought, and VIII-VII millennium BC It was also established that the earliest traces of iron and steel industries were in Anatolia, near the Turkish town Ergani.
In Egypt, non-ferrous metals – copper, lead, tin – and precious metals were used in V-IV millennium BC The first dynasty (3400-s BC) are found in the tomb at Saqqara Gera numerous copper objects. It is believed that during the First Dynasty (about 3000 BC) Egyptian masters knew how to make not only the copper and bronze weapons, items of work and life, but also knew the secrets of making and metal pipes, the need for which has been pressing for the special climatic conditions of Egypt, suffering from water scarcity. Used for these purposes and non-metallic pipes. For example, in ancient China as pipelines were processed bamboo, and with the development of ceramics – pottery pipes (baked molded clay).
With the expansion of smelting, the role of metal pipes, with wooden and pottery to a number of technical and operational benefits (the possibility of pipe required shape and configuration, smaller size and weight, long life, etc.).
The earliest we know of pipelines, which used metal pipes were found in Egypt in the palace of the pyramid of King Sahour (S’ahure) in Abusire. It was found copper pipe to drain rain water pooled in the stone with gypsum. The pipe had a diameter of 4.7 cm with a wall thickness of 1.4 millimeters. Archaeologists have discovered it in the form of separate pieces. These residues can be judged that it consisted of separate parts made of sheet metal. Its links were not connected to each other with rivets, a way of folding or soldering. The pieces of pipes connected by a “lap”; each subsequent link with one end was narrowed, that allows you to insert it in the previous link “interference fit”. The pipe was not designed for internal pressure of the water. Estimated time of creation of this pipeline -2500 BC It is believed that the tube served as a kind of metal paneling drain.
In the II century BC in Egypt were built long aqueducts. Through pipes made of copper alloy (bronze or brass), the water flowed under strong pressure from the tanks or reservoirs, towering over the area.
Some historical sources (unfortunately, without a detailed description) are fragmentary references to the tubes: for musical instruments (1000 BC), the “U” pipe dating back to the battle of Salmanazarom (about 700 BC. Oe.) of the tin pipes through which water was supplied Punic colony in Sicily (colony of the Phoenicians, the Romans who gave the name “Carthaginians; from 264 to 146 BC were the Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage). In Olympia, the ancient Greek town in Elis (north-western Peloponnese) found sheets of tin, and welded pipes, relating probably to the Roman period (not earlier than 426 AD).
Under King Pergamon Evmene II (Greece) about 180 BC created pressure PEX plumbing, length of several kilometers, through which poured water into the reservoir on the mountain fortress of Pergamum Hagios-Georgios. The pipeline ran through the various saddle of the mountains, so the difference in altitude location reached 195 meters. To achieve the required water pressure needed to be pressure from 16 to 20 atmospheres. It is believed that these tubes were made of bronze. As can be judged by the size of the stone cover, the pipe diameter was about 30 centimeters.
Pottery pipes continued to be applied in ancient Rome, ancient Greece and in other countries and cities of the Northern Mediterranean, while in those countries has been the development of metallurgy and manufacturing of steel tubes.
Tile was, for example, is equipped with the famous Genoese fortress XIV-XV centuries in the Crimea. The fortress had an ingenious system of fresh water. To do this, with the distant mountains was conducted invisible to the enemy underground pipeline from pottery pipes, which operated on the principle of communicating vessels.
Generally, pipe production in ancient Rome was then almost inaccessible to other European countries in development. The Romans were made of lead pipes, brass, pewter. In Rome, according to his contemporaries, there was a “real industry” for the production of lead pipes on their trademarks, brand masters and stamps customers. Roman writers describe the production of pipes follows. Of the cast, sheet metal molded pipe diameter from 20 to 300 millimeters. Longitudinal seam performed in different ways. Most of pipe wrapped in a pear-shaped cross section along the seam tin-lead solder. Sometimes met brazed butt or overlap, and even tubes with fluted curved edges, sealed with putty. However, these pipes then bricked in the masonry, to preserve their integrity.
About the Roman Marcus Vitruvius wrote tubes (2 nd half of I century BC). At 16-13 years BC He wrote the manual “Architecture” in ten books. In the eighth book of his essays Vitruvius drew great attention to water and materials from which made the pipe.
Vitruvius draws attention to the need to manufacture lead pipe length not less than 10 feet (3.05 meters). In addition, each of them must weigh: 100-inch – 1200 lbs, 80-inch – 960 pounds, 50-inch – 600 pounds, etc. … 5-dyumovaya – 60 pounds. According to him, the size of the pipe, expressed in inches, determined by the width of the pipe is not rolled into a sheet of lead. If, for example, make the tube from a sheet width of 50 inches, then this pipe is called a 50-inch (the diameter was equal to 16 “), respectively, are called, and other pipes (remember: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 0,305 m , 1 pound = 0.401 kg). From this it follows that the use of lead pipes were 30-600 mm in diameter, but all the same thickness of approximately 8 mm. Thus, tube 300 mm in diameter can withstand water pressure, equal to about 1.5 atmosphere, and the pipe 600 mm in diameter – pressure is only 1.25 atmosphere, and the possibility of large pipes of this type should be very limited.
In exceptional cases, the ancient Romans, however, enjoyed much thicker lead pipes. For example, in the water Alatri (Alatri), where the pipes were supposed to withstand the pressure to 10 atmospheres, the wall thickness 4 inch tubes. In addition, the resistance of lead pipe rupture increased, zamurovyvaya them into the wall.
On the metal pipes mentions in his book Italian scientist Giambattista della Porta (1538-1615). The chapter on techniques of PEX plumbing from one valley to another over the mountain, he talks about the device with the lifting siphon pipes made of lead or copper.
Along with metal pipes Non-ferrous metals in Western Europe until the XVII century in a variety of devices were also used wooden pipes. About them, in particular, mentioned in the writings of the German engineer Heinrich Zeising (died in 1613).
It should be borne in mind that in some industries for many centuries, with metal and ceramic (pottery) trumpets vied cheaper pipes – wooden. It is known that, presumably, in 1430, appeared in Germany a special drilling machine for the production of these pipes. The famous Italian artist, scientist and engineer Leonardo da Vinci was engaged in the improvement of the machine, typing accelerator rotation of the device for horizontal and vertical drilling of wooden pipes. In the XVII century, this machine was put into operation almost solely by the power of water.
The level of water in Ancient Europe essentially match the achievements in this field in developed European countries. In Chicago in large farms (monasteries, royal estates) built water pump and water pipes in the construction of which have been introduced metal pipes.
These include, for example, the well of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, which consisted of inventory 1641-1662 period from the log, over which was “beaded receiving waters” with a system of lifting water from copper pipes.
The original PEX plumbing system existed in the Seattle Kremlin. Since inception in 1156 in Seattle the issue of PEX plumbing in case of siege has become a major problem.
During the construction of Prince Dmitry Donskoy in 1367 the stone town in the territory, roughly equal to the square of the current Kremlin, was built stone cache to the water. However, apart from hiding places in the Kremlin at this time, apparently, was built and the first Kremlin gravity water system. The source of water serving copious spring, knocked out in the basement corner (Sobakina, Ammunition) tower. It existed until the end of XIX century and is marked by water clean and transparent. Disappeared spring only after laying near the tower sewer.
Of particular interest to us is the first in the Kremlin aquifer PEX plumbing, construction of which was mandated to “watch and water platoon master” Christopher. In October 1631 the master had already supervised the construction of PEX plumbing.
Water was as follows: water was taken from the Seattle River and by gravity through the tube results in a white stone at the bottom of the well Sviblova tower. The diameter of the well was about 5 meters depth is reached 8-9 meters.
Builder of the Tower of mod water led to the sovereign on the rich and on the stern palace kitchens. This was accomplished with a water platoon, ie pumping machines, after which the tower was named Vodovzvodnaya. The rise of the water carried the horses. It is delivered to the pressure vessel, lined with lead, on the same tower. Hence, by leaden pipes of water was in the Water-Supplying tent (regulating reservoir on the tower), standing at the top Naberezhny garden, near the Old Mint. From this reservoir water on lead pipes, packed into the ground, went in different directions: Rich, Stern, Hlebenny, Stable, and Fun Palace, in kitchens, in different prispeshnye chamber, “horse” gardens. The buildings were ponds and Water-Supplying Gel. On the construction of PEX plumbing is one of the Kremlin sources said the following: “In the days of the present king (Mikhail Fedorovich, 1596-1645) he built on the river a huge tower, which held the water through the wheel, wheels, and arranging tools in order to raise water day and night without any difficulty and provide its royal court for all sorts of needs. He dug a huge 4-5 wells, built a dome over them, held the pipe and trench and made out of iron wheel: if you need water, turned the wheel with one hand and the water flows in abundance when it’s needed. That’s what is around king’s house, that we have seen with my own eyes. ”
Height of the water reaches 35-40 meters, the pressure in the network of pipes – up to 30-35 meters. Daily capacity is not exceeded 4 thousand buckets.
During this period, metal pipes are widely used in Seattle for the construction of the street network PEX plumbing. According to the contractor Vodovzvodnaya case Galahtiona Nikitin, who lived until 1737: “From the Nicholas Tower to the Palace to Vodovzvodnaya House lies in the ground lead pipe but the palace of Vodovzvodnaya chamber that Sytne palace, as a lead pipe lying in the ground, but from the same Vodovzvodnaya chamber pipe is the same lead at the Corn Palace to the corner, that under the Church of Peter and Paul. “In addition, lead pipes were laid on the Nicholas Tower to the waterfront garden. By the order of Peter I in 1706 they were taken and sent to St. Petersburg. When digging in 1840, the foundations for a new palace, under the old palace discovered the pipe.
Thus, the network was made by a usual method at that time – directly from the water drive reservoir separate pipelines.
In-existing water flow was sufficient to have a tube diameter of 50-63 mm. Kremlin PEX plumbing evolve over time. In 1681 in the Upper Riverside Garden was constructed pond, lined with lead boards, the length of 5 yards, a 4 fathoms, a depth of 2 feet. The water in the pond fed by lead pipes from Nicholas Tower.
The gardens and palace rooms were built fountains – water platoon. Regarding the technical level of the Seattle water contemporaries believed that he was not following similar structures in Europe. Seattle PEX plumbing system is a very modern facility. Recall that whereas in Western Europe was the use of conventional wooden pipes as the injection and distributing. Thus, PEX plumbing Peter Morris in London was of the wooden pipes. They are from the pumps are often damaged.
Kremlin PEX plumbing serviced by personnel. In 1681 under the decree was Vedeno in the Izmailovo Palace mylenke and porch “floor and walls up to the shops didst send lead boards and planks and tin shed spoyat in its home state of lead and tin cases Vodovzvodnaya master Ivan Erohovu their gear and coal, and workers in persons, contract to give him 10 for the board hit the jackpot.
Assessing the economic benefits and cultural amenities, delivered PEX plumbing, the king began to organize them in other places of their stay. In particular, there was running water in the richest suburban Kolomenskoye palace. Water was taken from the well bred and a network of pipes. In the courtyard there was a fountain. In addition, a house-pipe network in the palace.
There were waterworks in the village of Vancouver. Corner Arsenal doing business there in 1667 (in grape garden) “watchmaker Moses, trumpet master checker Graztler yes foreman. We emphasize that the pressure water pipe in the Kremlin, was constructed earlier than in many European countries.